Candidate (Ph. D.) of Historical Sciences, Research Officer at Editional Archeography Laboratory at the Institute of Humanities and Arts of Ural Federal University and Institute of History and Archeology of Ural Branch of RAS.
Research interests: history of Russian political and social concepts of modern history, government administration of Russia in the 18th century.
Publications related to the subject of the conference:
- Проблема прав и обязанностей российского дворянства в Уложенной комиссии на рубеже 1750-х и 1760-х гг.: к истории Манифеста о вольности дворянской // Уральский исторический вестник. 2013. № 3 (40).
- Вопросы образования в Уложенной комиссии в 1759-1761 гг. (два проекта 4-й главы О должности родительской III части Уложения) (in print).
- «В пользу отечеству и в авантаж главному государственному члену, то есть дворянству»: записка П.И. Шувалова об артиллерийском и инженерном образовании (1761 г.) (in print).
Research interests: Russian press in the second half of the 18th century, government administration of Russia in the 18th century.
‘According to Their Learning and Their Merit’: The Problem of Education in Official Policy and the Press in the Russian Empire in the 1760s
Early 1760s take special place in the history of identity development among Russian noble class. Precisely in that period representatives of the nobility express the need to define and legally formalize rights and duties of the nobility. Besides discussion on nobility issues begins in the emerging public sphere thanks to activity of writers and opinion journalists. A problem of organizing and improving education of the nobility was an integral part of the above phenomena. Thus at government level I. Shuvalov, a favorite of Empress Elizabeth of Russia, submits to the Senate a project on introduction of three-stage compulsory education for Russian nobility and gets an approval. Guided by Shuvalov’s intentions the Legislative Commission led by Count R. Vorontsov creates respective section on education of the nobility in draft Code of Law. After the death of Empress Elizabeth ideas of compulsory education found support in legislation of Peter III. At the same time, in early 1760s an active discussion on the need to spread education and sciences across the Empire starts in literature and press (works by V. Maikov, N. Popovsky, I. Barkov, A. Rzhevsky and M. Popov). Moreover, some authors particularly point out the need of education and scientific knowledge specifically for the nobility. First of all, this idea is expressed in one of the first Russian print magazines, Industrious Bee (‘Trudolyubivaya pchela’) by Alexander Sumarokov, one of the leading writers in early 1760s. Such ideas justifying superiority of an educated nobleman over an uneducated one were basically generated by persons who mainly owned cultural capital. Without being too rich or noble they thus tried to argue for their own significance and high position in the Empire.